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Increases cognitive efficiency

Increases cognitive efficiency

Cognitjve for trying appetite control in women things to enhance cobnitive thinking: Make an effort to appetite control in women Inxreases a new hobby or activity. A transferable high-intensity intermittent exercise improves executive performance in association with dorsolateral prefrontal activation in young adults. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline—Results from a prospective memory clinic study.

Increases cognitive efficiency -

In a recent study examining the effects of cognitive training on cognitive performance of healthy adults, the authors found that there was a transfer effect between the trained abilities and the instruments used only when the tests were similar to the trained situation near effects.

If the tests differed too much from the training tasks far effects no training effect was observed However, some studies did show a transfer to general cognitive function as tested byneuropsychological batteries for multiple cognitive domains 11 , 16 and also demonstrated a protective effect in patients with MCI Those beneficial effects could be related to the multi-domains, novel and continuously challenging self-adaptative stimulation provided by most cognitive training apps, which has been shown to be superior to the routine mental activities of everyday life These challenging and unusual stimuli induce changes in brain activity and connectivity in areas that are known to be affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases.

Those changes may help counteract age- and disease-related alterations and help to explain cognitive benefits and transfers, once their link with cognitive improvements has been clearly established 33 , Finally, the study suffers a selection bias, since the participants were all users of this app and were therefore most probably familiar with the use of smartphones and current technology.

This has two consequences: first, older people who are less familiar with mobile technology might find this app less usable and therefore the adherence may be lower. Secondly, a recent study underlined the importance of digital devices use in delaying cognitive decline in the older adults 58 , thus the participants of this study may have already been benefiting from this phenomenon and thus functioning at a higher cognitive level than those who do not regularly use mobile technology.

Despite these limitations, the results of this study support that even at old age above 80 years old , participants are able to use CMG and to train and improve cognition through CMG.

Although technological devices and medical-related apps cannot single-handedly improve cognitive decline, in the absence of effective, low-cost, and accessible treatments for cognitive and motivational deficits, these brain training apps could be greatly beneficial to public health.

One salient aspect of the games is that they could be combined with automated evaluation and assessment of cognitive function 16 , In this context, the presented method could be an interesting complementary tool due to its potential to become widely available thanks to the growing use of mobile technology.

Another positive aspect is that the cognitive training and follow-up with games on mobile can be also proposed to patients with limited mobility, or living to far to come on a regular basis to specialized centers 60 , and in lockdown during the COVID pandemic 61 , While cognitive training app games have been shown to improve memory in older people with mild cognitive impairment 63 , further studies are needed to determine if technologies, such as apps, can decrease dementia risk in healthy subjects or slow down the progression of the disease in patients suffering from cognitive impairment and if there is a transfer to the activities of daily living.

We can, also, speculate that since psychomotor slowing associated with aging has an important negative effect on multi-tasking activities of daily living, improving the processing speed could have a positive effect on the quality of life of the participants We carried out a retrospective observational study in which we obtained anonymized CMG results of healthy participants.

This study was approved by The Cambridge Psychology Research Ethics Committee Pre. The scores of the CMG, automatically recorded by the application, were then analysed anonymously for each of the five age groups provided: 60—64, 65—69, 70—74, 75—79, and 80 years or older.

The number of participants varied in each CMG and in the different age groups Table 1. In this study, we used a set of seven individual short CMG provided by Peak brain training www. net , London—UK to analyze changes in-game scores and processing speed over the course of sessions of CMG one session is defined as the completion of one level of the CMG.

The games are organized by categories based on the main cognitive functions on which they focus. Screenshots of the games are presented in Fig. The difficulty level of each CMG is adapted automatically according to the previous performance of the participant i. The number of stimuli and the intersimulus intervals depend on the CMG and the difficulty level The CMG were played on smartphones or tablets and the scores of training sessions were analyzed.

No particular instructions were given to the participants about the frequency or the duration of each training session, the total duration needed to achieve the sessions of training for the different CMG is presented in Supplementary Table S1.

Screenshots of the 7 CMG used in this study. A Square Numbers, B Memory Sweep, C Word Pair, D Babble Bots, E Must Sort, F Unique, G Rush Back. Instructions and main cognitive abilities trained of each CMG are presented in Table 5.

The primary outcome was the scores obtained in the seven CMG for the different age groups. Several cognitive sub-functions are usually assessed during standard cognitive evaluations: attention, memory, fluency, language, and visuospatial abilities Table 5 To have a complete overview of the cognition, those different sub-functions need to be assessed individually; the scores of the CMG are used as a proxy of the main sub-cognitive abilities challenged in each game.

As a second primary outcome, we computed the processing speed based on the reaction time for the speed-dependent CMG exceptions were Memory Sweep and Word Pairs Details of the computations are presented in Table 4.

Processing speed is considered as a good indicator of general cognitive performance 19 and has been proposed as a predictor of frailty risk among people in old age 67 , Firstly, the first session scores of the different age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance ANOVA or Kruskal—Wallis tests, depending the distribution of the data, to determine if age had an influence on the initial scores.

Omega-squared analyses or epsilon-squared non-normally distributed tests were computed to estimate the effect size Post-hoc tests for linear trends were performed last. We then analysed each CMG using a separate mixed model with random slope age and intercept with the scores from each session treated as repeated measures adjusted for the total duration of the training for each participant.

Fixed effects of age group, session 1 to , and the interaction between age group and session were specified, and the estimated baseline measures were constrained to be identical in the age groups by subtracting the mean values of the first session for each age group in all the sessions.

This approach is equivalent to adjusting for baseline and permitting the relationship between baseline and follow-up scores to differ at each session. Likelihood-ratio tests were used to test the significance of the random effects model and linear mixed model with interaction.

For the processing speed, we applied a separate mixed model for the different CMG with random slope age and intercept with the processing speed from each session treated as repeated measures, adjusted for the difficulty levels reached and the total duration of the training for each participant.

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Public Health , 7—14 Malavita, M. After a min delay, during which the optode grid remained in place, participants once again performed the same Stroop task POST.

The crossover, double-blind design was used in the present study. All subjects completed all experiment conditions, which were separated by 1 week to ensure drug washout period. Caffeine hydrate Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd. The dosage of each condition was calculated according to the weight.

In this way, researchers and subjects could not identify caffeine according to the appearance and taste of the capsule. The Stroop task is widely used to evaluate selective attention, cognitive flexibility, and processing speed Pauw et al.

It was programmed and performed on E-prime 1. Each trial was displayed as follows: a fixed cross in the center of the screen for ms and a stimulus duration for ms. There were two kinds of stimuli in current study: congruent and incongruent conditions.

The congruent condition is composed of three Chinese color words i. And the incongruent condition consisted of the same three-color words, whose color was completely different from the meaning of the color words e. Subjects were required to figure out the presenting color of each word by using the numeric keypad as the response apparatus.

Participants performed two blocks of trials. Each block included 60 congruent and 60 incongruent trials, which were randomly presented. To prevent participants from anticipating a stimulus, the interval between appearance of the fixed cross and presentation of the stimulus was randomly differed between and ms, with the fixed inter-stimulus interval ISI duration of 1, ms.

Both RT and accuracy ACC were recorded for further analysis. We used a multichannel, continuous wave, NIRS instrument NIRScout, NIRx Medical Technologies LLC, Minneapolis, MN, United States for monitoring hemodynamic activity during performance of the task and during the resting state.

The sampling rate was 3. The NIRS probe included 16 dual-wavelength sources and nm and 15 optical detectors, which covered the frontal and parietal areas bilaterally Figure 1.

One emitter and one detector 3 cm apart formed a channel. Forty channels were assessed: 20 distributed throughout the frontal area and 20 distributed throughout parietal areas. The correspondence between NIRS channel locations and specific brain regions was established by Okamoto et al.

Figure 1. The spatial profile of functional near-infrared spectral imaging fNIRS probes. The red circles indicate the 16 optical sources, the green circles indicate the 15 detectors, and the black numbers 1—40 indicate fNIRS channels.

The optical sources and detectors were positioned on the international 10—20 standard positions. Optical data were transformed into hemoglobin signals with arbitrary units in accordance with the modified Beer—Lambert law Cope et al.

It has been reported that HbO signals have a better signal-to-noise ratio than HbR signals Niu et al. The HbO data were analyzed with nirsLAB software.

After discontinuous shifts were removed from the time series dataset, HbO signals were bandpass-filtered between 0. Bandpass filtering was performed by a high-pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 0.

Hemodynamic data were then baseline-corrected based on the mean value of all signals from each block 5 s before to 15 s after the block. The HbO data were then averaged across subjects Chen et al. The region of interest ROI channels were defined as those channels with maximal HbO.

After HbO was averaged across subjects, mean HbO during the congruent and incongruent conditions was subtracted from mean HbO during the resting state. The mean difference between the single-cognitive task and resting state sessions was arranged according to descending magnitude, for each channel Chen et al.

The multichannel NIRS space was transformed into traditional Montreal Neurological Institute space Cutini et al. Channels of interest were related to three ROIs on the basis of their spatial distribution relative to the automated anatomical labeling template Table 1.

HbO values were then averaged through channels within a given ROI. Statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS One-sample Kolmogorov—Smirnov test was used to test whether data were normally distributed. When data are not normally distributed, statistical analysis was performed on the logarithmic transformation of the data.

Then alterations in RT, ACC, and averaged HbO data for all frequencies in a given ROI were subjected to 4 × 2 repeated-measures ANOVAs. For cases in which the assumption of sphericity was violated, the Greenhouse—Geisser correction was used to reduce the likelihood of a Type I error.

If significant main or interaction effects were found, post-hoc analyses were carried out with a Bonferroni correction. Partial eta 2 P η 2 was used as a measure of ES in the case of ANOVA. Data are presented as mean ± SD.

These results confirmed that Stroop interference could be generally observed between the congruent and incongruent conditions. There was no significant difference in RT between CAF3 and CAF6.

There was no significant interaction for ACC Table 2. We found no significant interaction for ACC Table 2. A 4 × 2 mixed ANOVA revealed that there was no significant interaction for mean HbO in ROI-1 Figure 2A , ROI-2 Figure 2B , or ROI-3 Figure 2C. Figure 2. Changes in the mean [HbO] of incongruent condition in the DLPFC A , FPA B , and VLPFC C.

HbO, oxygenated hemoglobin; DLPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; FPA, frontal pole area; VLPFC, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex; PRE, before administration; POST, after administration. Values are mean ± SD. In the CON group, mean HbO had significantly decreased at 60 min after administration of the placebo, as compared with baseline values.

Figure 3. Changes in the mean [HbO] of congruent condition in DLPFC A , FPA B , and VLPFC C. Significant PRE vs. Compared with baseline values, mean HbO after 60 min showed a significant decrease in the CON group. Compared with baseline values, mean HbO had significantly decreased at 60 min in the CON group.

This novel study investigated the effects of ingestion of low, moderate, or high doses of caffeine typically used by athletes on cognition and brain activation using NIRS. We found that ingestion of low doses of caffeine, but not moderate or high doses caffeine, decreased RT on the Stroop task, under the congruent and incongruent conditions, and increased mean HbO in three ROIs under the congruent condition.

Ingestion of moderate doses caffeine only decreased RT on the Stroop task, under the incongruent conditions. After consumption of low doses of caffeine, participants in our study showed decreased RT, accompanied by a significant decrease in interference effects.

These findings are similar to those reported by Kenemans et al. Similar to the present study, Souissi et al. Moreover, Ali et al. This discrepancy in results may reflect methodological differences related to the specific protocol used or the gender of the study participants.

Moreover, we observed that high doses of caffeine had no effect on cognitive performance. One possible explanation for this finding is that the ingestion of high doses of caffeine induces side effects such as gastrointestinal upset, nervousness, mental confusion, and inability to focus Graham and Spriet, Our data suggest that ingestion of low or moderate doses of caffeine ingestion decreases interference with successful performance on the Stroop task.

Previous studies have reported the activation of the lateral prefrontal cortex LPFC upon execution of the Stroop task. Banich et al. This may result in greater activation of relevant LPFC in the incongruent condition compared with the congruent condition.

Milham et al. Additionally, according to Krompinger and Simons , the DLPFC resolves conflicts that occur during information processing of incongruent stimuli during the Stroop task. Therefore, the Stroop performance is more related to activation of the DLPFC.

In the present study, we found a significant main effect of condition for the mean HbO of the DLPFC: the mean HbO in the incongruent condition was higher than in the congruent condition. These Stroop effect findings are similar to those in previous functional NIRS fNIRS studies, which suggested that executive functioning is associated with activation of DLPFC Xu et al.

Interestingly, we found different results with previous two fNIRS studies Xu et al. But DLPFC activation in the present study is consistent with that of a previous meta-analysis review on Stroop task-related fMRI, in which FPA and VLPFC also could not be significantly activated Nee et al.

Thus, more fNIRS or fMRI neuroimaging studies are needed to clarify the roles of FPA and VLPFC in the Stroop task. That caffeine improved the Stroop task performance may be related to activation of LPFC. Combining the above-mentioned opposite pattern in which the mean HbO of DLPFC in the incongruent condition was higher than that in the congruent condition, indicated that mean HbO of LPFC, especially DLPFC, has been increased during Stroop-interference processing in the incongruent condition, whereas following caffeine ingestion, the significant reduction was found in the activation of LPFC.

These results demonstrate that under high cognitive processing, the effects of caffeine on LPFC activation have been attenuated by higher demanding processing, whereas under low cognitive tasks, the effects of caffeine on LPFC activation are more pronounced, because the congruent condition in Stroop task involved less demanding processing.

The present results provide new evidences for previous studies that caffeine improvement of brain activation is induced more easily at the moment of the lowest values Niioka and Sasaki, ; Souissi et al. In the present study, under the congruent condition, no doses of caffeine ingestion affect the mean HbO.

These results contrast with those of previous studies, which found that ingestion of 75 or mg of caffeine was associated with decreased mean HbO on the Stroop task Niioka and Sasaki, ; Dodd et al.

This discrepancy in results may reflect methodological differences related to the specific protocol used. Therefore, use of the Stroop task should be standardized in future studies for investigating the effects of drugs on cerebral hemodynamic responses.

These results are consistent with those of a previous fMRI study, which showed that ingestion of low-dose caffeine enhanced neuro-activation in the frontal cortex Diukova et al.

The increase in mean HbO during the Stroop task observed in this study after ingestion of low-dose caffeine may be related to an increase in regional cerebral blood volume rCBV. Caffeine acts as an adenosine receptor antagonist and consequently as an excitatory neuro-stimulant, thus enhancing neural activity Dunwiddie and Masino, and increasing rCBV.

These findings are in line with a report by Higashi et al. Caffeine also regulates cerebral perfusion and acts as a vasoconstrictor, decreasing CBF via the blockade of A2A and A2B receptors Laurienti et al.

Our observation that ingestion of low-dose caffeine increases mean HbO suggests that caffeine increases in rCBF via exciting neuro-stimulants outweigh caffeine decreases in rCBF via decreasing CBF.

Moderate-to-high doses of caffeine administrated 1 h before and during exercise have been known to increase endurance athletic performance. In contrast, recent evidence has shown an ergogenic effect of low and extremely low doses of caffeine taken late during a period of prolonged exercise Hogervorst et al.

Furthermore, low doses of caffeine do not affect peripheral whole-body responses to exercise and are associated with few, if any, side effects; Spriet suggested that low doses of caffeine ingestion improve exercise performance In this study, we observed that ingestion of low-dose caffeine had greater effect on cognition and brain activation than had moderate and high doses, which means that low doses of caffeine have greater effect on stimulating the CNS.

The present study maintained a few limitations. We used G-power to estimate the sample size, and the numbers of subjects in this study met the minimum sample size requirements. However, more samples are needed in the future research so that the research results can be further verified and repeated.

Figure 2 illustrates the treatment effects on cognitive performance, measured through the number of correct matrices out of 10 for each payment scheme.

Under the piece-rate payment, the coefficients for both treatments are negative but not significantly different from zero. half of the minimal detectable effect see SI Section 2. In contrast, the MH treatment does not lead to any significant effect.

Interestingly, the payment scheme alone does not have a significant effect on cognitive performance SI Table 4. It is the combination of the threshold payment and LM treatment that enhances the cognitive performance of students. This suggests that the effect is indeed driven by those who were attentive to the articles and questions.

Yet, students might have given wrong answers for different reasons in the different treatment groups limiting the interpretation of these results. The positive effect of the LM treatment under the threshold payment scheme holds when compared to each control group separately see SI section 2.

The p-value drops to 0. Treatment effect on cognitive performance. The dependent variable is the number of correct matrices Minimum possible: 0, maximum possible: Includes pre-registered baseline controls: gender, the field of study, undergraduate, scholarship recipient, as well as age and number of correct matrices in the first round.

See SI Table 2. We pre-registered heterogeneity for gender, receiving a state-funded scholarship as a measure of parental income, the field of study, the level of study, being close to finishing their studies, depression and anxiety score, and whether the mood questionnaire was asked before or after the treatment topics.

Figure 3 Panel A illustrates the treatment effect for the different subgroups for the piece-rate treatment and Panel B for the threshold payment see SI Tables 6 and 7 for the regression results. Under piece-rate payment, we find no significant treatment effect of the LM topic in any pre-registered dimension.

For the MH topic, we find that it decreases cognitive performance among those without a scholarship We find that the MH topic negatively affects the depression score though the questions were asked about the previous weeks see SI Table 13 column 1.

We verify if assignment to treatment changes the group composition into those below and above the median. If treatment changed the composition, the subgroups would not be comparable between treatments.

However, we find that the median for each treatment cell is the same, such that using the overall median to divide the participants into two groups and the group-specific median leads to the same results.

Results are also the same if we correct the mental health score by the treatment effect see SI Table 8. We also find in a quantile regression that the MH topic negatively affects those with an already high score see SI Table 9. We expected those with a scholarship to be more vulnerable as they come from a poorer background.

Yet, receiving a state scholarship might also give students a stable income and thus improve their financial stability compared to those who do not receive it but have a similar financial background. The effect on those with poor mental health is in line with expectations: those who are especially vulnerable perform worse.

The coefficient for the anxiety score goes in the same direction, though is not significant Under the threshold payment, the treatment effect of the LM topic is consistently positive for all subgroups.

The MH topic does not have a significant effect on cognitive performance for any pre-registered subgroup. Treatment effect on cognitive performance: pre-registered heterogeneity. See SI Tables 6 and 7. This heterogeneity analysis allows us to go beyond the pre-defined subgroup analysis by accounting for high dimensional combinations of covariates.

We then use the predicted CATE to rank the observations from those with the lowest CATE to the highest CATE and group them into quartiles. We apply the causal forest to each of our treatments.

Therefore, we limit our analysis to this treatment arm. To compare the two most contrasting groups, we analyze the difference between those in the first and the fourth quartiles see SI Tables 24 and For the first quartile, the average treatment effect is close to zero and not significant Table 1 displays the results.

Similar to the pre-registered heterogeneity analysis, we find that students without a scholarship and students not close to graduation and labor market entry are more likely to be in the first quartile than in the last, thus benefiting from being treated with the LM topic and the threshold payment Table 1 , Panel A.

Furthermore, we can pin down other characteristics that seem relevant to generating a positive effect. First, the financial situation and family background plays an important role: on average, participants in the highest quartile are less likely to struggle financially, more likely to be able to cover additional expenses, and less likely to work beside their studies Panel C.

They are more likely to be non-migrants, have highly educated parents, and have both their parents working Panel E. Second, participants who were more socially active during the lockdown are more likely to respond positively to the treatment: students in the highest quartile state not having passed the lockdown alone and claim seeing friends and going to the university more often than those in the lowest quartile Panel H.

Finally, being able to switch from task to task easily lower cognitive rigidity and having a lower locus of control seem related to performing better Panel I. For the other outcomes see Methods section , we do not have variation in the payment scheme.

Hence, we only study the effect of being exposed to the different topics. We do not find any significant effect on cognitive reasoning or risk-taking SI Table 10 columns We also verify if the treatment topics affect the willingness to pay for a lottery ticket to win a real individual online coaching session by a leading student counselling firm SI Table 10 columns We do not find any significant effect though the coefficients are positive as expected when controlling for baseline characteristics.

We find no other significant effect for either of the two treatments SI Table The LM topic is a reminder for students that finding a job at the end of their studies might not be easy. Yet, it is not an immediate problem and it is partly endogenous, as students can take action to face up to the adverse situation, in particular through academic effort.

Hence, the topic can be motivating — at least for those who believe that they have the possibility to cope with the consequences. This interpretation is underlined by the observation that the positive result is driven by those not too close to labor market entry.

We also find that the LM treatment significantly increases the perceived importance of finding a well-paid job after university see SI Table 12 column 2 , as well as the willingness to pay for a real career coaching session.

The LM treatment thus increased the salience of job-finding challenges at the end of the studies. Psychological studies have shown that a higher stress level can increase performance when the stressor is seen as a challenge rather than a threat 35 , This motivation effect seems to have been picked up by the more challenging or motivating threshold-payment scheme.

Payment schemes that provide explicit and achievable goals can enhance motivation and performance more than schemes where payment is linked to the individual unit of output The threshold payment should be especially motivating for those who believe they are just below the threshold.

The score measures how many matrices they got right in the incentivized training task before the treatment.

This result suggests that the threshold-payment scheme successfully motivated those students to increase effort. We also find that the threshold payment increases the perceived importance of having good grades as well as a well-paying career see SI Table 12 columns 1 and 2.

The threshold condition seemed to make academic performance more salient and connect it with the cognitive performance task. In the piece-rate treatment, we find a negative effect among different subgroups, including those with a high depression score.

Thus, there is a potential detrimental effect of this topic on the most vulnerable. job uncertainty or the deterministic nature of the issue. Under the threshold payment, we see an average null effect of the MH topic, and no sub-group with a positive or negative effect.

The threshold payment is only expected to be motivating if people believe that they will reach the goal and effort is useful. The MH topic might just do the opposite. This could counteract the otherwise motivating effect of the threshold payment.

We find that the increase in performance, after the exposure to a worrisome topic with scope for action and given a goal-based payment scheme, is driven by participants from a better-off background. Students with larger socioeconomic resources seem to be able to draw motivation from future uncertainty, provided the right incentives are in place.

This is not the case for those with a more vulnerable profile. Hence, during periods when students are faced with worrisome news, we expect those who face financial, social, or psychological vulnerabilities to perform worse than better-off students.

We hypothesize that they are less able to perceive the opportunities in the situation. Therefore, they are more often blocked by worries about negative consequences. Such a mechanism implies that students with unequal preexisting socioeconomic characteristics will perform differently.

The consequence is a deepening of preexisting inequalities. That is, our study highlights a new inequality-widening or poverty-preserving mechanism. In the case of the Covid pandemic, this adds to the ample evidence that the negative consequences of lockdowns on student learning were especially severe among students from less-educated and poorer families 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 , More generally, our finding is in line with previous studies showing that financially vulnerable people experience a worse cognitive performance when faced with financially worrying tasks or situations 14 , Some experiments showed that positive emotions are linked to a broader scope of action or psychological resilience 66 , While our experiment induced negative emotions, it is likely that better-off participants benefited from having a more positive baseline emotional level.

Indeed, we observe that facing financial struggles is associated with lower emotional scores along the three dimensions, among those who answered the emotions questionnaire before the treatment see SI Table When students were invited to sign up and when they started the survey, they were informed about it including pandemic-related questions.

While the invitation was sent to all students and, based on limited administrative data available, our sample looks similar to the general French student population, those who participated might differ in unobserved characteristics.

Specifically, those who were the most vulnerable might have not taken part in the survey. Furthermore, we selected topics that were negative but correct and not sensationalist.

On social media, people are often confronted with much more negative framing. Also, we only test the effect of one reminder of a topic that they probably have already heard a lot about and contemplated on several occasions. Therefore, we most likely find a lower bound of the potential negative effect.

In this online experiment, respondents were faced with worrisome topics in an online format — which mirrors how young adults generally consume news and are confronted with such topics. However, their cognitive performance response could have been different if the task was in person rather than online.

Within a lab or face-to-face setting, participants might have already been under more stress. Again, this points towards us finding a lower bound of the potential negative effect. Yet, many professional tasks are nowadays done in a setting similar to the one in our experiment online and distant clients.

We thus argue that the online setting might be more relevant than a lab setting for this type of question. It also allowed us the run the experiment at a larger scale and recruit students who would not have participated in a lab experiment, which was important for the study of heterogeneity.

The question arises if these results hold beyond a sample of university students. First, students might be more responsive to our goal-based payment scheme, which resembles an academic exam situation.

Yet, other papers have shown that similar payment schemes can affect the performance of adults 37 , Second, for students, the LM topic implies future difficulties, for which they can prepare individually through effort. Arguably, those already at work might see the topic more often as a threat and less often as a challenge.

Yet, the key distinction between worries about topics with and without scope for action is general. For instance, a topic such as climate change can be seen as a challenge by some - who then get motivated to become active - and as a distracting worry by others.

Participants were recruited from the Aix-Marseille University AMU , a large public French university. Interested students were invited by email to sign up for a paid online survey, approved by the AMU ethics committee.

Students signed up with their unique official university email addresses. Between February and April , for six weeks, students who had signed up were randomly selected and sent an individual survey link on a Tuesday that was valid until the Friday of the same week.

Participants had 90 minutes to finish the survey once started. For the last week of invites, all those previously not selected received the survey link, as well as those who had been invited but had not started the survey.

All methods were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations. The experimental procedure recruitment process, consent form, treatments, and questionnaire received approval from the ethics committee of AMU, reference number Informed consent was obtained from all participants at the beginning of the experiment.

In the experiment, students were purposely faced with reflection topics that can be expected to trigger negative emotions. To minimize the risk of an effect that extends beyond the duration of the experiment, the following steps were undertaken.

First, students were informed that the survey would deal with the pandemic when they signed up and when they started the survey. Students could end the anonymous survey at any moment.

They thus reflect information in a format that young people are constantly confronted with, presumably multiple times a day. The reflection questions were questions that young people are generally faced with as well. The survey, illustrated in SI Figure 2 , started with an information and consent page which described the survey structure and the topics covered.

The students were told that the survey would cover topics related to the pandemic. Following, respondents were asked some basic socio-demographic questions in the pre-questionnaire age, scholarship recipient, field of study, gender.

All participants then faced the first round of the cognitive performance task, incentivized by a linear payment scheme. Before the treatment articles, half of the sample randomly selected were asked questions about their current mood.

The other half were asked the same questions after the treatment section. Participants were then moved on to the treatment topics. After the treatment topics and the questions about their current mood, participants were faced with the second round of the cognitive performance task with the different payment structures.

This was followed by incentivized measures for cognitive reasoning, risk-taking, and the willingness to pay for an individual online coaching program see below. Respondents were then asked questions about their studies, their career expectations and pressures, their Covid and lockdown experience, their current social habits, and their financial situation.

This part also included questions for eliciting mental health, anxiety, and locus of control. The survey ended with a questionnaire on the socio-demographics of the student and their family.

After the survey, participants were informed of their payment and could choose the method of payment Amazon or Cultura voucher. In the experiment, we cross-randomize the reflection topic and the payment scheme see SI Figure 1.

A translation of the treatment topics can be found in the SI section 3. The original French questionnaire can be found in section 5. Participants were randomly shown one of four topics. Each topic contained an article of around words including two graphical illustrations followed by non-incentivized comprehension questions.

The topics also included several reflective questions to motivate the students to think about the topic and their situation. The format, length and number of questions were the same for all topics. Both the Labor Market LM and Mental Health MH topic included information on the negative consequences of the Covid pandemic and the lockdowns.

For the control groups, we chose two different topics: one article about the progressive elimination of cage rearing in France Animal Welfare and one article on the future of the Artemis program to land humans on the moon again Space Program.

The two control topics differed in some dimensions potential emotional response, forward-looking perspective but were both chosen to not make respondents anxious or worried about their own situation see discussion in SI section 2.

All articles were taken from online platforms of actual newspapers and reflect information that students are confronted with daily. While addressing negative topics, we purposely chose articles that were factual and not sensational. The treatments were designed to make the labor market or mental health consequences of the Covid pandemic salient and to have participants reflect on their situation.

Labor market LM topic : The LM topic started with an article about the difficulty of young graduates entering the labor market. It mentioned a decreasing number of job offers due to the pandemic and described expected increases in unemployment. It included two graphs, one illustrating the expected increase in unemployment, and one highlighting the pessimistic view that many young people have about their labor market prospects.

Mental health MH topic : The MH topic included an article about the psychological effects of the pandemic, focusing on the isolation of young people due to national lockdowns. It included a graph that illustrated the depression rate for different age groups and a graph displaying how prevalent mental health problems, stress and anxiety are.

Although France was not in lockdown at the time of the survey, there were still heavy restrictions in place, especially affecting students e. remote or hybrid classes, a curfew, closed bars and cultural institutions. For the second round of cognitive performance, participants were randomly allocated to one of two payment structures, cross-randomized with the topic treatments.

If they solved 5 or more, their payout was the same as in the piece-rate treatment. The payoff structure was illustrated in a table. Participants were shown an incomplete matrix containing colorful, abstract forms with one missing field and were asked to select the missing item among six options.

In the first round - the training task -, participants were shown one example and then asked to correctly solve 4 matrices. They had a time limit of 3 minutes 45 seconds per matrix. For each correctly solved matrix, they received 0.

In the second round, which took place after the treatment, participants were asked to correctly solve 10 items with a time limit of 6 minutes and 40 seconds 40 seconds per matrix.

The payment scheme for the second round varied by treatment. The number of correctly solved matrices in the second round is our main outcome of cognitive performance.

Emotional state: Participants were asked a short translated version of the multidimensional mood questionnaire 53 , MDMQ to measure their current emotional state. This version of the MDMQ consists of 12 questions along three dimensions: feeling good versus bad, feeling awake versus tired, and feeling calm versus nervous.

For each mood dimension, four questions are asked, two phrased positively and two negatively. Importantly, the MDMQ explicitly asks how the respondent feels at this current moment. Half of the participants were asked about their emotional state before the treatment and half after the treatment but before the incentivized tasks.

This was cross-randomized with the topic treatments and the payment schemes to verify if administering the questionnaire in itself after the treatment topics had an effect. We measure cognitive reasoning with three questions in the style of Frederick To measure risk-taking, we used a lottery choice in the style of Gneezy and Potters The coaching program included an orientation test and three individual sessions with a coach.

Participants could choose between different modules: interview simulation, work methodology, self-confidence and stress management, and psychological support. We compute a Depression score through the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 72 , PHQ We changed the last question from the PHQ-9, which explicitly asked for the presence of suicidal thoughts, to one related to depression from HADS.

We also compute an Anxiety score through a short version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score 73 , HADS. Finally, we use a short version of The Internal Locus of Control Index 74 , ICI.

This index measures to what extent subjects feel they have control over their lives. Highly internal subjects feel responsible for the things that happen in their lives, while low internal subjects believe that factors beyond their control determine their lives. Of the students that started the questionnaire, students finished it.

The overall rate of attrition is 3. The distribution of the covariates is balanced across the treatments on all pre-registered covariates see SI Table The joint orthogonality test is insignificant when comparing the topic treatments and the payment structures.

As pre-registered, we include these variables as baseline controls in all our specifications. The main analysis was done by OLS in Stata The displayed results are based on regression including the specified pre-registered controls with robust standard errors see SI Section 2.

The Causal Forest was run in R version 4. The regression tables are reproduced in SI Section 1. The Causal Forest method, as well as the related test, are described in SI Section 2. A discussion of the pre-registration plan can be found in SI Section 4. It includes the replication codes.

Thank you for Increases cognitive efficiency nature. You are using a browser version cognitivw limited support for Cogniitve. To obtain the best appetite control in women, we cogjitive you appetite control in women a more up Resisting temptation for unhealthy foods date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Worrisome topics, such as climate change, economic crises, or pandemics including Covid, are increasingly present and pervasive due to digital media and social networks. Do worries triggered by such topics affect the cognitive capacities of young adults? Moreover, we study how such a response is affected by a performance goal. Posted March 12, Reviewed by Gary Drevitch. Effciiency New York NIcreases recently published an article about the "brain fitness" Increases cognitive efficiency, "Do Increases cognitive efficiency Workouts Work? Inncreases a variety of other daily Allergy relief essentials, these "brain-training" games cannot stave off mental decline or dramatically improve cognitive function. Most of these brain-training games will have some benefits, but it's impossible to optimize brain connectivity and maximize neurogenesis growth of new neurons sitting in a chair while playing a video game on a two-dimensional screen. In order to give your brain a full workout, you need to engage both hemispheres of the cerebrum, and of the cerebellum.

Increases cognitive efficiency -

Abstract thinking. Young children mostly understand only things that can be seen or touched. They may understand a portion of abstract ideas, such as love, justice, or fractions, but their understanding is of limited scope.

As the brain develops in adolescence, a young person gains a broader understanding of more abstract ideas. Advanced reasoning. Children have limited reasoning that focuses on the information at hand. In contrast, adolescents can predict the results of their actions by using logic to imagine multiple options and different situations.

This new ability helps young people plan for their future and consider how their choices will affect that future. This practice enables youth to reflect on how they came to an answer or conclusion. This new skill also helps adolescents think about how they learn best and find ways to improve how they absorb new information.

Still, parents and other caring adults should remember that the teen brain is not fully developed. Teens may struggle with impulse control and may be more likely to make decisions based on emotions than on logic.

By keeping these issues in mind, adults can provide the support adolescents need as their brains develop. Cognitive development, much like physical development, happens at a different pace for every adolescent.

As a result, adolescents of the same age may not have the same thinking and reasoning skills. Learning styles and multiple intelligences.

Every adolescent learns and processes information in a different way. Adolescents may find that some academic subjects are easier for them to learn or are more interesting than others. Education theories suggest that presenting information and assessing learning in multiple ways helps young people with different learning styles.

Challenges will differ based on the disability, but being aware of the issues can help adults link adolescents to the proper tools and resources for them to thrive.

Furthermore, under the federal law, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA , K public schools must provide accommodations for students with disabilities, including learning disabilities. College students with disabilities can obtain supports through the Americans with Disabilities Act.

For some adolescents, brain development might be more difficult because of earlier or ongoing trauma. The brain reacts to the environment. Experiencing violence, neglect, or abuse can stunt brain growth.

Mental health disorders. Many mental health disorders first appear during adolescence, in part because of changes in physical brain development.

An adolescent struggling with mental health challenges may have decreased motivation and have a harder time with cognitive tasks, such as planning and decision-making.

Adults can support adolescents by watching out for mental health warning signs and providing teens who face mental health challenges with treatment. Substance use. The brain is especially vulnerable to addiction at this stage of life.

Use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs in the teen years is associated with increased risk for adult substance use disorders. In contrast, if teens abstain from certain substances such as tobacco , they are less likely to use these substances as adults.

One of the biggest changes and challenges in adolescence is an increase in risk-taking. Cognitive development during adolescence predisposes young people to take more risks than adults, and taking risks is an important part of growing up. Trying new things gives adolescents the chance to have experiences that will help them make the transition to their independent adult lives, such as finding a career, starting their own family, or moving to new places.

Adults can help protect adolescents from unhealthy risks by being aware of these factors and creating environments that guide young people to healthy choices:.

Differing rewards. Because the back of the adolescent brain develops before the front, the parts of the brain that handle rewards form stronger connections before the parts that manage impulse control.

This gap means that even if adolescents know the risks for the future, they may still place a higher value on a short-term reward. For some practical resources to get you started, check out some of the following. This handout is a valuable resource you can use to educate children about the benefits of exercise for mental wellness.

In particular, it lists several of the emotional and neurochemical benefits of exercise and recommends several forms of exercise children might enjoy. Use it to facilitate discussion about the link between mind and body when talking about the brain and cognitive health.

This exercise invites clients to illustrate the gap between the extent to which they are currently using their strengths and the extent to which they could.

This exercise effectively gives clients immediate visual feedback on their strength use and can facilitate discussion around plans to increase or optimize strengths use. This measure was created with the help of the Activity Builder at Quenza.

Quenza is a platform created by the same team who established PositivePsychology. The Cognitive Fitness Survey can be used for self-reflection.

It is designed to assess and track physical and emotional factors that contribute to cognitive health. It also assesses and tracks specific cognitive health dimensions, including attention; short-term, remote, and prospective memory; and organizational capacity.

Use them to help others flourish and thrive. For much of their history, clinical psychology and related helping professions focused on assessing and treating emotional, social, and cognitive deficits.

With the positive psychology movement in the late s came a different emphasis: finding and building upon strengths. Aspects of health and wellbeing began to be studied more assiduously and became the focus of interventions. Initially, cognitive health was one aspect of overall health and wellbeing that was overlooked by many researchers and practitioners.

Fortunately, more recently, cognitive health has begun to receive the attention it deserves, as both a research topic and focus of intervention Aidman, As with other components of health and wellness, cognitive health, including attentional capacity, memory abilities, and organizational and problem-solving skills, can be enhanced with the right support and exercises.

Staying physically healthy pays large dividends toward such cognitive fitness. Physical health includes maintaining a heart-healthy diet, sleeping well, and exercising regularly. In addition, basic, cost-effective mental activities and exercises can further boost cognitive fitness.

Many of these are enjoyable in their own right and can boost cognitive skills. To be most effective, cognitive activities and exercises should involve as much novelty as possible.

To find the right activities, a positive psychology, strengths-based approach might be useful. We hope you enjoyed reading this article. About the author Dr.

Jeffrey Gaines earned a Ph. in clinical psychology from Pennsylvania State University in He sees clinical psychology as a practical extension of philosophy and specializes in neuropsychology — having been board-certified in Jeffrey is currently Clinical Director at Metrowest Neuropsychology in Westborough, MA.

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For that reason, time management books, techniques, and software are a dime a dozen. When guiding your busy [ While difficult to define, perfectionism can drive impossibly high standards and have dangerous consequences.

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Albers, C. When power analyses based on pilot data are biased: Inaccurate effect size estimators and follow-up bias. R Core Team. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing Download references. Bruno Bonnechère was funded by the Fondation Wiener-Anspach ; Dr.

Barbara J Sahakian receives funding from the Wallitt Foundation and Eton College and research is conducted within the NIHR MedTech and in vitro diagnostic Co-operative MIC and the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre BRC Mental Health and Neurodegeneration Themes.

REVAL Rehabilitation Research Center, Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0SZ, UK. Laboratory of Applied Biology and Neurophysiology, ULB Neuroscience Institute UNI , Université Libre de Bruxelles ULB , Brussels, Belgium.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. The study was conceived by B. performed the analysis. and B. did the data interpretation and contributed to the writing. Correspondence to Bruno Bonnechère.

Bonnechère, Dr. Langley and Prof. Klass have nothing to disclose. Sahakian consults for Cambridge Cognition, Greenfield BioVentures and Cassava Sciences.

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Reprints and permissions. Brain training using cognitive apps can improve cognitive performance and processing speed in older adults. Sci Rep 11 , Download citation. Received : 09 November Accepted : 18 May Published : 10 June Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

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nature scientific reports articles article. Download PDF. Subjects Dementia Geriatrics. Abstract Managing age-related decrease of cognitive function is an important public health challenge, especially in the context of the global aging of the population.

Introduction According to the World Health Organization WHO , the world population aged over 60 years will have doubled in number by , with an estimated total of 2 billion people 1. Results Time needed to perform all sessions Since no particular guidelines are given in the app regarding the frequency of the training sessions, we first analyzed the number of days needed to reach the sessions for each CMG.

CMG scores First, we analyzed the results of the first session of training to evaluate the influence of age on initial CMG scores. Table 1 Number of subjects in each age group n and mean SD or median [IQR] scores for the different CMG according to the age of the participants for the first session of training.

Full size table. Table 2 Results of the mixed models, β SE representing the change of score of the CMG per session training.

Compared with Pancreatic islet cell tumor other species on Autophagy function, humans have Cognitivve by leaps and bounds to create the world we now live in. A large cognitice of this has to do cobnitive our Increases cognitive efficiency Incresaes, otherwise known as our ability to cognutive, know, remember, cognitivr and appetite control in women problems. Efdiciency skills are essential in helping us become reflective and self-aware individuals who learn from our mistakes and who strive to continually improve ourselves and the world around us. If you are interested in further developing your understanding of human development and cognition, our Graduate Diploma of Psychology Bridging could be for you. To live our best lives at any stage, optimal cognitive thinking is important, as it enables us to perform better when studying and while at work. Understanding and purposefully developing these skills enables us to achieve our potential and maximise our mental and physical health.


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